- The drawings from the office of Sir John Soane
- Other Years: 1777, 1799, 1800
James King was drowned on Sunday, 9 June 1776 and in the following year Soane exhibited 'An elevation of a [three storey] mausoleum, to the memory of James King, Esq.' at the Royal Academy. Soane's Designs in architecture ..., published in 1778, included a part-plan and an elevation of a 'Design for a [two storey] Mausoleum to the Memory of James King Esq. drowned June 9, 1776' plates xxxvii -xxxviii. Thus Soane's design was made with exhibition at the Royal Academy in mind as were several other of his designs made in Italy, 1778-80.
It has been difficult to establish who drew what among the sketch designs (drawings 1-13) that precede the final design (drawing 14). An assumption has been made that most are by George Dance with some by Soane. The most striking of these drawings are 4 and 5 in a Greek Doric style, clearly by the same hand but not Soane's. They had been thought to be by John Flaxman (P.du Prey, John Soane, the making of an architect, 1982, p.345, fn.43) but Professor David Bindman (e-mail, 2 March 2006) wrote 'I suppose the attribution to Flaxman must derive from comparison with the drawing by him in the V&A which is said to be a parody of the King monument. In fact the handling of the latter seems to have nothing to do with the drawings [at the Soane Museum]. It is not impossible that they were done by Flaxman but there is no evidence to point that way that I know of.' At present, sketch designs 1-2 are given to Soane, 3-10 and 13 are attributed to Dance, 11-12 could be Soane or Dance. No doubt, these attributions will change when more evidence is available.
The initial designs for the mausoleum (1 and 2) were an eclectic mixture of Egyptian and 'Moresque' styles. Something similar seems to have provoked amusement from Soane's friends. Hence the satirical drawings by a fellow Royal Academy student John Flaxman for 'A Mausoleum adorn'd with Colossal Sculpture being / an attempt at something in a new Style' (inscribed by George Dance 'For the Exhibition of 1777') and another with a pagoda-like design for a 'Mausoleum for Ching Chang Chow / Emperor of China' (Victoria & Albert Museum: V&A: 3436.110 recto and verso, recto reproduced du Prey, 1982, fig.4.12). Another drawing, attributed by this cataloguer to George Dance, inscribed 'Design for a public Privy' and with several lavatorial references is also in the Victoria & Albert Museum (V&A: 3436.11, and was presumably made at the same time as Flaxman's efforts (reproduced A.Rowan, Robert Adam:catalogue of architectural drawings in the Victoria and Albert Museum (sic), 1988, pp.45-6). A further Dance design at the Soane Museum titled 'A surprising antique Edifice in the Middle of the Desart of Arabia / adjoin'd wth Colossal figures of exquisite sculpture' (SM 69/8/2, J.Lever, Drawings of George Dance the Younger ..., 2003, catalogue ) also satirizes Soane's immature first designs.
The sketch designs take the idea of a domical centre and a base with bold semicircular openings seen in drawing 2 and experiment with a coved entrance and a pyramidal rather than a domical roof, then stretch the design with a domed centre linked by colonnades to pyramidal pavilions and then subtract the colonnades and made the design more compact. A comparison between the later sketch designs (drawings 9-12) and Soane’s final design (drawing 14) and as visualised by J.M.Gandy (drawings 17-19) show that perhaps the most obvious difference lay in the additional colonnaded storey that gave extra accommodation though Dance's design for the entrance front (drawing 4) was three-storeyed.
Related drawings at the Victoria and Albert Museum: see P.du Prey, Sir John Soane, 1985, in series of 'Catalogues of architectural drawings in the Victoria and Albert Museum', catalogue 21-4
Literature. J.Summerson, 'Sir John Soane and the furniture of death', Architectural Review, CLXIII, 1978, pp.147, 345 fn.43; P.du Prey, John Soane's architectural education 1753-80, 1977, pp.85-6; P.du Prey, John Soane: the making of an architect, 1982, pp.94-7; J. Lever, 'The Soane-Dance collaboration, 1771-1799, Architectural History, volume 53, 2010, pp.163-190
Jill Lever, July-September 2005
Sir John Soane's collection includes some 30,000 architectural, design and topographical drawings which is a very important resource for scholars worldwide. His was the first architect’s collection to attempt to preserve the best in design for the architectural profession in the future, and it did so by assembling as exemplars surviving drawings by great Renaissance masters and by the leading architects in Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries and his near contemporaries such as Sir William Chambers, Robert Adam and George Dance the Younger. These drawings sit side by side with 9,000 drawings in Soane’s own hand or those of the pupils in his office, covering his early work as a student, his time in Italy and the drawings produced in the course of his architectural practice from 1780 until the 1830s.
Browse (via the vertical menu to the left) and search results for Drawings include a mixture of Concise catalogue records – drawn from an outline list of the collection – and fuller records where drawings have been catalogued in more detail (an ongoing process).
Contents of Rough preliminary designs, some attributed to George Dance, and design 'for a Mausoleum to the Memory of James King drowned June 9. 1776' , 1776-7, with J.M.Gandy perspectives, 1799-1800 (19)
- Alternative rough designs by Soane in mixed Egyptian and mixed 'Moresque' styles (2)
- Early rough design by George Dance on a compact plan with pyramidal roof
- Early rough designs for entrance front, attributed to George Dance (2)
- Rough alternative designs by George Dance for a domed or pyramidal building linked by colonnades to pyramidal or domed pavilions (3)
- Rough design by George Dance closer to the final design
- Earlier and later rough designs by Dance
- Later rough designs (3)
- Final design, 1777
- Record drawings (2)
- Imaginative reconstruction drawings made by J.M.Gandy, 1799-1800 (2)
- Imaginative reconstruction drawing made by J.M.Gandy, 1800