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Reference number

SM (1) 73/3/3 (2) 73/3/4 (3) 73/3/5

Purpose

Survey drawings taken by Thomas Dove, 1788 (3)

Aspect

1 Site plan of The Castle Hill showing The Castle, The Shire House, The Keepers House, Pump, Stairs to Privy, The Road 185 feet and The Bridge 149 feet long and (Soane, feint pencil, some pen) plan and section of proposals to the east of the castle keep 2 The Ground Plan of the Castle and Shire House in the City of Norwich 3 The East Front of the Castle and Shire House in the City of Norwich

Scale

(1) scale bar of 1/16 inch to one foot (2-3) scale bar of 1/9 inch to one foot

Inscribed

1 as above, North, South, East, West (west at the top of the sheet), (Soane, pencil, mostly illegible, some words crossed out, relating to securing the bridge and the road) A, B, (marks bridge and road) A. The --- Gate --------- 8 feet high / is & which are to be ----- fixed at ---- / this place as the solid -------- / --- can not be ------- the / Bridge. The Gate is to be -- / --- ------ Ledger ---- braced / B. ------ ------ 8 feet high (remainder illegible) and some (Soane, pencil) dimensions given 2 as above, labelled The Shire House, Entrance, The Keyturners / Room, Stairs to Upper Gaol, The long / Ward, The Strong / Hold, Debtors Yard, Pump, The Old Building, The Bath House, The Felons Yard, Pump, Privy, The Chapel, Stairs to the / Sick Room (Soane, pencil) North, East, West, Chapel, Area, (Soane, pencil) North, East, West and a few dimensions given 3 as above

Signed and dated

(2-3) Thos Dove / 1788

Medium and dimensions

(1) Pen, sepia, yellow and green washes, pricked for transfer on laid paper (475 x 674) (2) pen and sepia wash, pricked for transfer on laid paper with two old repairs (420 x 585) (3) pen, sepia and Indian red washes, pricked for transfer on laid paper, red sealing wax on bottom corners (440 x 599)

Hand

1-3 Thomas Dean, surveyor

Watermark

1-3 J Whatman, fleur-de-lis within crowned cartouche and below, ornate W

Notes

These survey drawings were made by Thomas Dove of whom not much is presently known. Norfolk County Record Office has two drawings signed by him and dated 1786 for a new bridewell (prison, house of correction) and a further drawing for alterations and additions to the existing bridewell after a fire (NCR case 1be/100-102). These last were carried out by Dove; the bridewell is now the Bridewell Museum in Bridewell Alley, Norwich.


Soane's office "Journal No1' has an entry for 13 May 1789: 'surveyed Castle'. Presumably he took with him Dove's survey drawings, no doubt originally made for the Norwich City Corporation.


Drawings 2 and 3 of Dove's survey have on their versos copies of Soane's elevations (cf. drawing 7 'Entrance Front' and 'Longitudinal Elevation' dated 6 June 1789). While the drawing paper is of the type used by Soane's office at this time, it is presumed (from the dating) that Soane's office re-used Dove's drawings rather than the other way round.

The site plan shows that the area of the 'Castle Hill' was roughly 256 feet by 256 feet and that access was via a bridge to the south and a road to the north-east. Of the three buildings shown, the castle keep had been used as a prison since about 1220 though when purpose-built interventions were made is uncertain. However by 1747-9 Matthew Brettingham (1699-1769) was repairing the keep/prison as well as building the Shire Hall.

The ground plan and elevation (drawings 2 and 3) show the keep to measure about 90 by 95 feet and 60 (sic) feet high. The ground floor of the four-storey building is entirely given over as a prison and there are 'Stairs to the Upper Gaol'. The walls are between nine and twelve feet thick including two internal walls towards the south-east. To the right is the two-storey, embattled front elevation of Brettingham's Shire Hall stepped back by about 15 feet from the keep.

Literature

N. Pevsner and B. Wilson, Norfolk 1: Norwich and north-east, 2nd ed.,1997, pp.256-60

Level

Drawing

Digitisation of the Drawings Collection has been made possible through the generosity of the Leon Levy Foundation

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Sir John Soane's collection includes some 30,000 architectural, design and topographical drawings which is a very important resource for scholars worldwide. His was the first architect’s collection to attempt to preserve the best in design for the architectural profession in the future, and it did so by assembling as exemplars surviving drawings by great Renaissance masters and by the leading architects in Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries and his near contemporaries such as Sir William Chambers, Robert Adam and George Dance the Younger. These drawings sit side by side with 9,000 drawings in Soane’s own hand or those of the pupils in his office, covering his early work as a student, his time in Italy and the drawings produced in the course of his architectural practice from 1780 until the 1830s.

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