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image Image 1 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
image Image 2 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
image Image 3 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
image Image 4 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
image Image 5 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
image Image 6 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
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  • image Image 1 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
  • image Image 2 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
  • image Image 3 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
  • image Image 4 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
  • image Image 5 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
  • image Image 6 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16
  • image Image 7 for SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16

Reference number

SM (93) volume 81/12 (94) volume 81/11 (95) volume 81/13 (96) volume 81/14 (97) volume 81/15 (98) volume 81/22 (99) volume 81/16

Purpose

Progress drawings, July 1812 (7)

Aspect

93 Perspective of west front 94 Interior perspective of enfilade 95 Interior perspective of almshouses and Mausoleum 96 Bird's eye view of the Mausoleum skyline 97 Interior perspective of the enfilade 98 Interior perspective of Gallery 99 Interior (pencil) view of the Mausoleum at Dulwich

Inscribed

99 as above

Signed and dated

(93) July 6 1812 (94) C Tu, July 7th 1812 (95) (pencil) July 7th 1812 (96) (pencil) R C (three times), July 28th 1812 (97) C T, July 30th 1812 (98) datable to mid 1812 (99) (pencil) R C (twice), July 29th, August 10th 1812

Medium and dimensions

(93-97, 99) Pencil and coloured washes, watercolour technique, shaded, within a single-ruled black wash border on laid paper (214 x 378, 232 x 167, 230 x 340, 221 x 270, 220 x 215, 215 x 241) (98) pencil and coloured washes, watercolour technique, shaded on laid paper (199 x 222)

Hand

(93) George Basevi or Charles Tyrrell (both pupils recorded in the Day Book entry for 6 July 1812) (94-95, 97) Charles Tyrrell (1795-1832, pupil 1811-1816) (96, 99) Robert Dennis Chantrell (1793-1872, pupil 1807-1814) (98) Soane office

Watermark

(93, 96) fleur-de-lis within crowned cartouche and below, GJ (94, 99) not visible (95) G Jones 1809 (97) Fellows 1804 (98) 1809

Notes

The outer shell of the Mausoleum was completed by the beginning of July, while the rest of the west front was still under construction, as can be seen from drawing 93 dated 6 July. Drawings 94 and 97 reveal the development of the five-bay vaulted enfilade, which runs uninterupted from north to south. By the end of July the roof carpentry for the top-lit galleries was complete, as can be seen in drawing 97. The timber structure of the vaulted ceilings were constructed by Richard Martyr and Son who were employed as carpenters; they were paid a total of £2343.7.2 for their work.

Drawing 95 reveals part of the almshouse interior with the antechamber of the Mausoleum through the arch on the left. Curved timbers beyond the arch, indicate that the cupola of the antechamber was under construction at this date. It is recorded that William Rothwell, the plasterer on '1812 June 20 to lathing and pricking up the dome to the centre of the New Building'. Drawing 96 shows the lantern of the Mausoleum almost complete, with the amber glazing being installed though the pitched roof above the antechamber is still under construction. Underwood and Doyle were paid £46.3.8 as specialist manufacturers of metal sashes, supplying the amber glass for the lantern and William Watson was paid £373.3.2 as the glazier. The carpentry frame of the dome is visible between the rafters of the roof.
In drawing 98 the vaulted ceiling has now been plastered. This would have been completed by either William Rothwell or J. and J. Bayley. The drawing reveals the duct that would receive the steam pipes for the under-floor heating system under construction. In the background it seems that perhaps a fireplace opening is being built in the Gallery wall, located as it appears in the plans of drawings 33, 43, 49 and 51. Once the exterior building work was completed in September 1812, Messrs Bolton and Watts' steam-heating system was installed at a cost of £270. As a result the floor of the Gallery was not laid until early 1813. The heating system was not a success and led to the pipes leaking causing dry rot.

Early designs show pendentive domes supporting glazed lanterns over the gallery spaces (see drawings 20-21). However, drawing 98 reveals that flat angled ceilings were actually built beneath the lanterns. Blank lunettes were built into the ceiling to give more interest. The lantern skylights of the Gallery are also complete at this stage. The smith, Thomas Rysell is recorded as doing the 'ironwork for Lanthorn lights' on 20 July, fixed by 3 men on 30 July. Lanthorn is an archaic word for lantern. He was paid a total of £49.18.2.

In drawing 99, dated 29 July, the carpentry of the dome of the Mausoleum antechamber is complete but it has yet to be plastered. Richard Martyr and Son were also responsible for this, they are recorded as fitting 'spherical brackets to domes of Mausoleum'.

An enlarged version of drawing 93 was drawn by a pupil as an illustration for Soane's twelfth Royal Academy lecture from the second series about construction on 12 March 1815 (SM 15/2/10). It is an almost identical view of the west front under construction but drawn in greater detail and shows the Mausoleum lantern with the amber glass fitted. Another similar version of this particular view was also drawn for the lecture but shows an earlier stage of construction with the Mausoleum lantern unbuilt and the Gallery walls incomplete (SM 15/2/08).

The information about the tradesmen is from the building accounts, SM Bill Book G, folios 413-442.

Literature

(97-99) C. Davies, 'Masters of building: the first independent purpose-built picture gallery: Dulwich Picture Gallery', Architect's Journal, April 1984, pp. 54-55; (98-99) T. Willmert. 'Heating methods and their impact on Soane's work: Lincoln's Inn Fields and Dulwich Picture Gallery', Journal of Society of Architectural Historians, 52/1, March 1993, (98) p. 54; (99) p. 55; (93-99) F. Nevola, Soane's favourite subject: the story of Dulwich Picture Gallery, 2000, (93) pp. 100 & 192; (94) pp. 99 & 192; (95) pp. 101 & 192; (96) pp. 102 & 192; (97) pp. 103 & 192; (98) pp. 104 & 192; (99) pp. 105 & 192-193

Level

Drawing

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Sir John Soane's collection includes some 30,000 architectural, design and topographical drawings which is a very important resource for scholars worldwide. His was the first architect’s collection to attempt to preserve the best in design for the architectural profession in the future, and it did so by assembling as exemplars surviving drawings by great Renaissance masters and by the leading architects in Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries and his near contemporaries such as Sir William Chambers, Robert Adam and George Dance the Younger. These drawings sit side by side with 9,000 drawings in Soane’s own hand or those of the pupils in his office, covering his early work as a student, his time in Italy and the drawings produced in the course of his architectural practice from 1780 until the 1830s.

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